address={Chicago, IL},
	att_abstract={Recent exploration into the unique security challenges of cloud computing have shown that when virtual machines belonging to different customers share the same physical machine, new forms of cross-VM covert channel communica- tion arise. In this paper, we explore one of these threats, L2 cache covert channels, and demonstrate the limits of these this threat by providing a quantification of the channel bit rates and an assessment of its ability to do harm. Through progressively refining models of cross-VM covert channels from the derived maximums, to implementable channels in the lab, and finally in Amazon EC2 itself we show how a variety of factors impact our ability to create effective chan- nels. While we demonstrate a covert channel with consider- ably higher bit rate than previously reported, we assess that even at such improved rates, the harm of data exfiltration from these channels is still limited to the sharing of small, if important, secrets such as private keys.},
	att_authors={kj2681, mh7921, rs2497},
	att_copyright_notice={(c) ACM, 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in CCSW 2011: The ACM Cloud Computing Security Workshop in conjunction with the 17th ACM Conference on  {{, 2011-10-21}}.
	author={Yunjing Xu and Michael Bailey and Farnam Jahanian and Kaustubh Joshi and Matti Hiltunen and Richard Schlichting},
	booktitle={Proceedings of the ACM Cloud Computing Security Workshop (CCSW)},
	institution={{CCSW 2011: The ACM Cloud Computing Security Workshop in conjunction with the 17th ACM Conference on }},
	pages={To appear.},
	title={An Exploration of L2 Cache Covert Channels in Virtualized Environments},