att_abstract={{Cellular network based Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is fast becoming a market-changing force for a wide spectrum of businesses and applications such as telematics, smart metering, point-of-sale terminals, and home security and automation systems. In this paper, we aim to answer the following important question: Does traffic generated by M2M devices impose new requirements and challenges for cellular network design and management? To answer this question, we take a first look at the characteristics of M2M traffic and compare it with traditional smartphone traffic. We have conducted our measurement analysis using a week-long traffic trace collected from a tier-1 cellular network in the United States. We characterize M2M traffic from a wide range of perspectives, including temporal dynamics, device mobility, application usage, and network performance.
Our experimental results show that M2M traffic exhibits significantly different patterns than smartphone traffic in multiple aspects. For instance, M2M devices have a much larger ratio of uplink to downlink traffic volume, their traffic typically exhibits different diurnal patterns, they are more likely to generate synchronized traffic resulting in bursty aggregate traffic volumes, and are less mobile compared to smartphones. On the other hand, we also find that M2M devices are generally competing with smartphones for net- work resources in co-located geographical regions. These and other findings suggest that better protocol design, more careful spectrum allocation, modified pricing schemes, and careful structuring of quality of service profiles may be needed to accommodate the rise of M2M devices.}},
	att_authors={lj1412, jp935w, jw2129},
	att_copyright_notice={{(c) ACM, 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in 2012 {{, 2012-06-11}}.
	author={Zubair Shafiq and Lusheng Ji and Alex Liu and Jeffrey Pang and Jia Wang},
	title={{A First Look at Cellular Machine-to-Machine Traffic – Large Scale Measurement and Characterization}},